Psychological disorders

1Psychological-disorders, are patterns of behavioural and psychological symptoms that impact multiple areas of life. These disorders create distress for the person experiencing these symptoms. The following list of psychological-disorders is listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (USA) (DSM-IV).

Mood and Anxiety Disorders.
Some of the common psychological-disorders come under this category.

Examples include
• depression
• bipolar disorder
• seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

Anxiety disorders are conditions characterised by excessive, abnormal fear, and anxiety. Various types of psychological-disorders come under this category. They include generalised anxiety disorder, phobias, and panic disorder.

Personality disorders are among some of the common types of psychological-disorders. Those affected with such disorders have abnormal personality and behavioural patterns that clash with the social norms and expectations. They find it difficult to deal with people and to form healthy relationships. Such people are rigid in their thinking pattern and behaviour, thereby leading to problems whenever they interact with people.

Some of the common types of personality-disorders are,
• antisocial personality-disorder
• obsessive-compulsive-disorder (OCD)
• narcissistic personality-disorder
• paranoid personality-disorder.

There are several categories of personality-disorder.
• Paranoid personality (a person who feels that everyone and everything is against them when in reality this is not true)
• Schizoid personality (indifferent to others and no desire to socialise).
• Schizotypal personality-disorder, which makes people extremely anxious in social situations, they may find it difficult to form relationships.
• Dramatic, emotional or erratic behaviour, which is seen in an antisocial personality (who has no respect for rules, regulations and often violates them, causing harm to others).

The next category includes
• borderline personality (erratic emotions and stress).
• histrionic personality are attention seekers and manipulators.
• narcissistic personality are people who are self-centred to the core.

The third category of personality-disorders deals with those having an anxious and fearful nature.

This group includes:
• avoidant personality-disorder (fear of taking risks, gullible, hypersensitive, avoids all things that include social interaction).
• dependent personality-disorder (dependent and submissive nature, allow others to take personal decisions, uncomfortable while lonely, need constant assurance).
• obsessive-compulsive disorder (repetitive, compelling thoughts and obsessions concerning things that are not real for instance, cleaning things that are already clean).

Psychotic Disorders:
This group includes certain types of mental disorders that severely affect the brain and thinking process. These people have difficulty thinking rationally and their judgments are impaired. Living their daily life becomes very, very difficult. However, for even the worst of these disorders, treatment is available.

The most prevalent symptoms of these mental disorders are;
• delusions
• hallucinations.

Those affected with these disorders develop;
• false beliefs (delusions)
• perceptions (hallucinations, hearing or smelling something that is not there).

Some other symptoms are:
• strange behaviour (may be dangerous to themselves or others)
• lack of personal hygiene
• decreased interest in doing things
• strange speech patterns that are not understandable
• mood swings
• relationship difficulties
• slow or strange movements.

Other major psychotic disorders are:
• Schizophrenia, the affected people have symptoms that last longer than six months. Delusions/hallucinations are common in this disorder.
• Schizoaffective disorder, those affected have both schizophrenia and other mood disorders such as bipolar disorder.

This list of mental disorders is not an exhaustive one,
there are many other types such as
• eating disorder (like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa);
• dissociative disorders (like split personality);

© 2013 – 2015, Content: Dr Vasilios Silivistris – Artwork: Ian Francis. All rights reserved.